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Diabetes

According, to recent statistic estimates, in the year 2025, 24,324,778 United States citizens will suffer from -blank-. Are you intrigued yet? Are you nervous? Well, what if I told you exercise and a proper nutrition can enhance your chances of never receiving this disease? Due to our sedentary lifestyle, and improper nutrition, the prevalence of Diabetes, has skyrocketed in recent years. If we as a nation, want to diminish the increasing rate, we must understand the disease

1. Diabetes is a metabolism disorder. During consumption, our body breaks most of our food down into glucose. It just so happens, that the main source of energy and fuel is, glucose. When an individual has diabetes their body does not produce enough insulin to be able to move their glucose throughout their body. Therefore, that individual does not receive the necessary fuel and energy.
2. Type 1 Diabetes: This is an autoimmune disease which causes the immune system to fight against the body. When an individual has diabetes, their immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Due to this, the glucose becomes sedentary and can not survive. In order to survive, an individual with diabetes, must take an insulin shot daily.
What is type1 diabetes? This question is frequently asked by those who do not have a fair understanding of this disease and its types. The three major types of diabetes are – Type1 or insulin dependent diabetes, Type2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Type2 diabetes is most common and affects 80-85% of people with diabetes. However, in this article we will provide an insight into what is type1 diabetes and other aspects related to it. Type1 diabetes, traditionally called as insulin dependant diabetes, is an autoimmune disease. The immune system fails to identify the beta cells produced by the pancreas and wages a war against them.
Antibodies and inflammatory cells are manufactured by the immune system to destroy the insulin producing cells of pancreas. This results in lack of insulin in the body which further causes the glucose levels to shoot up. This type of diabetes is mostly found in children and adolescents and is therefore also called “juvenile diabetes”.
What is type1 diabetes main cause? The main cause of type1 diabetes is an ‘auto immune process’ which causes lack of insulin.  Insulin is a hormone responsible for providing glucose to the various parts of the body. The hard glucose is then broken down into small particles to produce energy. Lack of insulin causes the glucose to remain in the blood stream. This, in turn, leads to high sugar level causing diabetes. Non production of insulin also causes fatigue as our muscles and other body parts are devoid of glucose and energy. The cause as well as the treatment of type 1 diabetes depends upon insulin. Therefore, it is referred to as insulin dependant diabetes.
What is type1 diabetes treatment? Type1 diabetes can be treated by providing sufficient amount of insulin to the body at appropriate intervals. Insulin can be injected into the body using insulin injections. The frequency of these injections will depend upon various factors. Some of these are routine, eating habits, level of physical activity, and medical condition of the patient. Insulin can also be provided to the patient through insulin pumps and insulin pens. Insulin can not be taken in the form of oral medicines. Exercise and diet regulations can also help in treating type1 diabetes. Type1 diabetes was called as insulin dependent diabetes as its patient mainly depends upon insulin for his/her survival.
Insulin resistant diabetes v/s Insulin Dependent Diabetes: The difference between the two types of diabetes will help to understand each of them better. Type1 or insulin dependant diabetes is caused because the insulin producing beta cells are destroyed by the immunity system. On the other hand, insulin is produced by the pancreas in case of type2 diabetes. But type2 diabetes is caused because the body is unable to use this insulin in a proper manner. Type2 diabetes is also called as insulin resistant diabetes, as the body is resistant to the insulin produced by the beta cells of pancreas. The body fails to use the insulin for carrying the glucose to the various parts of the body
3. Type 2 Diabetes: Insulin resistance, or Type 2 Diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In the case of Type 2 Diabetes, an individual is producing sufficient insulin, but for unknown reasons can not effectively use it. Although, the origin is different from type 1 diabetes the result is the same; the glucose becomes sedentary, rendering it useless.
Type 2 Diabetes and You: The juvenile diabetes statistics indicate that the prevalence of juvenile diabetes type 2 is rare among children and adolescents; the occurrence being greater in older age groups. Health outcomes however have differed greatly with self management. Better management leading to better quality of life.
Choosing a Full Life: Diabetes is a life altering disease but it does not preclude a full life. It just means things have to be done differently and some habits need to change, namely, food habits and sedentary life styles. Juvenile diabetes statistics has shown that moderate exercise is very effective in juvenile diabetes type 2. Exercise reduces the blood sugar levels and improves the body’s usage of insulin. In prediabetes, medication along with lifestyle changes can help prevent the progress of the disease to juvenile diabetes type 2.
Preventable: It is surprising that such a life altering disease, which can have so many complications, is so easily preventable with the following means:

        | A healthy diet |  A 30 minute exercise regimen 5 days a week | A healthy weight |Sreening for prediabetes |

However, a word of caution: when exercising there is the risk of sudden drop in blood sugar levels. Therefore when exercising, it is necessary to start any regimen of regular exercise with consultation with the doctor. Have an insulin pump or some other insulin delivery system ready. This drop may occur during sleep, with unwanted consequences, so some quick insulin delivery may be needed.
The Diabetic Food Pyramid: The ADA has given the diabetic food pyramid as a tool to assist those suffering from juvenile diabetes type 2. This food pyramid is different in that it is based on the carbohydrate and protein content and not the food type. The usage of this helps the persons suffering from juvenile diabetes type 2 to select foods so that the ingested food releases glucose into the blood stream very slowly. Of the 4 levels the lowest is the carbohydrates, with the 3 stacks above it being fruits and vegetables, milk and proteins and the tip being alcohol and sweets and foods to avoid/minimized.
The Juvenile Diabetes Statistics: The juvenile diabetes statistics have been studied by the CDC and with minor changes due to racial differences indicates a greater incidence of type 1 diabetes than juvenile diabetes type 2. These are the figures quoted:

| 5.3 per 100,000 for juvenile diabetes type 2 | 19 per 100,000 for juvenile diabetes type 1 |

The juvenile diabetes statistics are positive in so far as showing that the majority of the youth are not going to be afflicted by it in the near future.
Medications: Even those diagnosed can effectively manage the disease and avoid complications, with the 3 pronged attack of diet, moderate exercise and medications. The medications are of 3 types:

| Those that boost pancreatic activity | Those that block carbohydrate assimilation | Those that deliver/improve efficacy of insulin |

Juvenile diabetic statistics have shown that with the above stratagems diabetics have effectively managed their health and life challenge
4. Gestational Diabetes: Gestational Diabetes can only occur during pregnancy. This disease is strictly based on plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT. A woman’s glucose levels must be closely monitored during pregnancy, because their levels normally drop. In the case, of gestational diabetes, however, they almost become non existent.
Gestational Diabetes and Diet: Gestational diabetes is a condition that affects a small percentage of women who are pregnant but can lead to very serious complications if untreated. Diets for gestational diabetes are similar to diabetes Type II as they cut out foods that are hard for the body to digest and end up converting to glucose in the pancreas. Gestational diabetes and diet are often closely related, especially if the type of gestational diabetes that a woman has is considered to be A1.  There are two types of gestational diabetes, A1 and A2. Most women who get this condition get type A1 which is often due to poor diet as well as related to weight gain. Gestational diabetes and diet are related in the fact that women who binge on sugary foods and gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy are more at risk for this condition. Diets for gestational diabetes A1 can keep this condition under control without the use of medication.  Women who have a family history of diabetes, who smoke or who are older than 35 when pregnant have more of a chance of getting gestational diabetes A2 which must be treated with insulin medication. Women who do not follow gestational diabetes and diet guidelines for type A1, however, can also be at risk for the condition turning into A2 in which they have to be treated with medication. For both types of diabetes, diets for gestational diabetes must be followed.  One of the aspects that many women do not consider when thinking of gestational diabetes and diet issues, is how they cook. While many people realize that they should not eat sweets or drink sweetened drinks, they may not realize the effect some other foods have on the blood glucose levels. 
Diets for gestational diabetes also take into account refined carbohydrates as well as fruits and some vegetables that may be high in sugar content. It is important for any woman who has this condition to discuss gestational diabetes and diet issues with her doctor as well as monitor her blood glucose readings several times a day. Many women do not have symptoms of this condition, which is why they need to see their doctors regularly during pregnancy for routine screening. In some cases, the urine sample provided at monthly visits during the beginning of pregnancy can indicate high glucose.  Diets for gestational diabetes A1, when followed correctly, can often eliminate the need for treatment using insulin.  Gestational diabetes and diet are often related and in many cases, a proper diet that eliminates foods that are hard on the digestive system can help a woman control her blood glucose levels and not have need for medications that are used to treat women with this condition. There are various complications that stem from gestational diabetes that can affect both the mother and the child which is why it is so important for the condition to be monitored and diets for gestational diabetes to be followed during pregnancy
 
 
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